Minimum job performance requirements for firefighters who drive and operate
fire apparatus.

NFPA 1914

Testing FD Aerial Devices

Specifies minimum inspection and testing requirements for aerial devices to
insure a minimum degree of safety for continued use.

Applicable to aerial ladders, platforms and water towers.

NFPA 1911

Fire Pumps

Service Tests of Fire Pump Systems on Fire Apparatus

Establishes site, environmental, and equipment requirements for proper pump
system performance testing as well as frequency and procedures.

Friction Loss

FrictionLoss In Fire Hose:

Friction loss
(FL) is the most important variable to be considered in fire ground hydraulics.Each appliance, fitting, coupling, section of hose and everything else through which water flows will impede the flow through friction.
All of these factors may vary with condition, design, manufacturer, and age of
hose and appliances: therefore, no exact allowances can be made for friction
loss. Use of parallel lines of hose reduces friction loss to approximately
28% of what it is with a
single line, for the same flow of water. Friction loss in 3" hose with 2 ½"
couplings is about 40%
that of 2 ½ " hose. Thus, with the same engine pressure (EP), it is possible to
use a line of 3” hose two and one half times as long as one of 2 ½, to get the
same nozzle pressure (NP) with the same size nozzle. Having 2 ½ “ couplings on a
3” hose only increases friction loss by about 5%:
using the same size couplings on both 2 ½ “ and 3 “ hose makes it possible to
use these sizes interchangeably.Pumps provide rated capacity
(100%) at 150 psi net pump pressure and only
70% of rated capacity at
200 psi net pump pressure
and at 250 psi net pump
pressure, the pump will discharge 50%
of rated pump capacity. By the use of formulas bellow, it is evident that the
friction loss in a hose is based on the quantity of water flowing. Friction loss will remain constant as long as the GPM remain the same.
Regardless of the pressure the friction loss in a given flow is approximately constant.

FL=CQ²L

FL= friction loss in psi

C =friction loss coefficient

Q=quantity of water flowing or flow rate in gpm

L =hose length inhundreds of feet

Q =gpm/ 100

Q=hundreds of gpm

GPM=actual flow through hose

100=a constant

L=
hose length/100

L=hose length in hundreds of feet

hose length=actual length of hose

100 =a constant

Hose Diameter
and Type (inches)

Coefficient (C)

3/4 inch booster

1100

1'' booster

150

1 1/4 ''booster

80

1 1/2 ''rubber lined

24

1 3/4 with 1 1/2'' couplings

15.5

2 1/2'' rubber lined with 1 1/2'' couplings

8

2 1/2 rubber lined

2

2 3/4'' with 3'' couplings

1.5

3'' with 2 1/2'' couplings

0.8

3'' with 3'' couplings

0.677

3 1/2''

0.34

4''

0.2

4 1/2''

0.1

5''

0.08

6''

0.05

4'' standpipe

0.374

5'' standpipe

0.126

6'' standpipe

0.052

Different way to calculate Friction Loss (for 2
1/2'' hose) is to use
formulaFL
= 2Q^{2} + Q
for flows greaterthan
100 GPM and
FL
= 2Q^{2}+ ½ Q
for flows less than 100 GPM.

To get FL
for hose larger or smaller in diameter than 2 1/2'', first you find FL for 2 1/2'' by using the
formula above, than the result should be multiplied or divided (whether
multiplication or division is used is up to personal preference) by the
appropriate conversion factor from the table:

Diameter and
Type (single line)

Divide by

Multiply by

3/4'' booster

0.0029

344

1 booster

0.011

91

1 1/4'' rubber lined

0.025

40

1 1/2'' rubber lined

0.074

13.50

1 3/4 '' rubber lined

0.16

5.95

2'' rubber lined

0.34

2.94

3'' rubber lined

2.60

0.385

3'' rubber lined with 2 1/2''
couplings

2.50

0.40

3 1/2'' rubber lined

5.80

0.172

4'' rubber lined

11

0.09

4 1/2'' rubber lined

19.50

0.051

5'' rubber lined

32

0.031

6'' rubber lined

83.33

0.012

1 1/4'' unlined linen

0.0157

63.60

1 1/2'' unlined linen

0.039

25.60

2'' unlined
linen

0.16

6.25

2 1/2'' unlined linen

0.14

2.13

SIAMESED LINES OF EQUAL LENGTH

Divide by

Multiply by

Two 2 1/2''

3.60

0.28

Three 2 1/2''

7.75

0.129

Two 3''

9.35

0.107

One 3'', One 2 1/2''

6.10

0.164

Two 2 1/2'', One 3''

11.50

0.087

Two 3'',One 2 1/2''

15

0.067

STANDPIPES

Divide by

Multiply by

4''

7.50

0.133

5''

22

0.045

6''

52

0.019

FINDFRICTIONLOSS: ( USE 2Q²
+ Q or CQ² L )

Rate ofFriction Loss
Increase(ROI)

ROI=V² /v²

V=new velocity flow

v=old velocity flow

New Friction Loss
( NFL )resulting from an INCREASE in the
Velocity Flow

NFL =
( V²
/ v² ) FL

NFL=New Friction Loss

V=new velocity flow

v=old velocity flow

FL=old friction loss

RelationshipBetween
Different Size Hose Lines (equivalent length -
EL)

EL= ( C1 / C2 ) L

EL= equivalent length

C1= coefficient of
smaller line

C2= coefficient of
larger line

L = hose length in hundrends of feet( length / 100 )

FrictionLoss
Coefficients for SIAMESED Lines of EQUAL Lengths

Two 2 1/2''

0.5

Three 2 1/2''

0.22

Two 3'' with 2 1/2''
couplings

0.2

One 3'' with 2 1/2''
couplings, one 2 1/2''

0.3

One 3'' with 3'' couplings,
one 2 1/2''

0.27

Two 2 1/2'', One 3''
with 2 1/2'' couplings

0.16

Two 3'' with 2 1/2''
couplings, one 2 1/2''

0.12

STANDPIPES

4''

0.374

5''

0.126

6''

0.052

APPLIANCES

> than 350 GPM Friction loss = 25 psi

Siameses and wyes- less
than 350 GPM Friction loss = 0 psi

Siameses and wyes=
greater than 350 GPM Friction loss = 10 psi

ClapperedSiamese(ladder trucks)=10 psi

Portable Monitor=25 psi

Wagon Battery= 25 psi

Hush pumpers "deck" gun=15 psi

Pierce pumpers "deck" gun=25 psi

Seagraves pumpers "deck" gun= 30 psi

American LaFrance "deck" gun= 60 psi

Ladder Pipe= 80 psi
(Note: Please check your department SOP and ladder specs.)

Standpipe= 25 psi

Sprinkler Inlet whether or not fire is showing pump
at 150 psi(Note: Please check your department
SOP).

ELEVATION
PRESSURE

Elevation Pressure= 0.5 H

Elevation Pressure=
Elevation pressure in psi

0.5= A constant

H= Height in feet

(Total Height minus 10, than divide by half,
or number of stories minus 1)

5 psi perfloor or 5 psi
per 10 feet( It is 4.5 psi but we are using 5
psi)

Mountain slopes-use 5 psi per 100' of hose layout( Again, it is 4.5 psi but we are using 5 psi in the
field )

PRINCIPLES OF FRICTION LOSS

1. IF
ALL OTHER CONDITIONS ARE THE SAME, FRICTION LOSS VARIES DIRECTLY WITH THE
LENGTH OF HOSE OR PIPE. Double the length, double the friction loss.

2. WHEN HOSE, ETC. ARE THE SAME
SIZE, FRICTION LOSS VARIES APPROXIMATELY WITH SQUARE OF THE INCREASE IN THE
VELOCITY OF THE FLOW. Double the speed of the
water and increase friction loss by four times.

3. FOR THE SAME DISCHARGE, FRICTION
LOSS VARIES INVERSELY AS THE FIFTH POWER OF THE DIAMETER OF THE HOSE.
At a given GPM, friction loss is cut by four times when you increase the
diameter of hose from 2 1/2'' to a 5'' hose.

4. FOR A GIVEN VELOCITY,FRICTION LOSS IS APPROXIMATELY THE SAME, REGARDLESS OF
THE PRESSURE OF THE WATER. Friction loss is VELOCITY based. The faster you
move it, the more friction loss occurs.

At a given quantity of flow,
friction loss in nearly independent of pressure. The velocity of water
through a hose line, not pressure, causes friction loss. Other factors
affecting friction loss in hose line include: rough lininings in the hose,
sharp bends or kinks, appliances, improperly seated gaskets, partially
closed valves, etc.